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发布时间:2019年12月02日 13:03:28 来源:5分快三 点击量:

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China-US Economic and Trade Frictions: Choose Right from Wrong

中美经贸摩擦,公道自在人心

Signed Article by Ambassador Xiao Jianguo on Timorese Newspaper INDEPENDENTE

驻东帝汶大使肖建国在东媒体发表署名文章

17 June 2019

2019年6月17日

近来,媒体普遍关注中美经贸摩擦,日前中国政府发布了《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书,阐明了中方政策立场,很多东帝汶友人向我询问有关情况,在此,我愿分享以下看法:考生如果怕自己错过考试报名时间和考试时间的话,可以 免费预约短信提醒,届时会以短信的方式提醒大家报名和考试时间。

Recently, China-US economic and trade frictions have attracted widespread attention of Timor-Leste and international media. The Chinese Government published a white paper titled “China’s Position on China-US Economic and Trade Consultations”, expounding China’s policy stance. Many Timorese friends of mine asked about this and I would like to share the following views:

一、美贸易霸凌行径殃及全球。中美是世界两大贸易国,有贸易摩擦是正常的,两国同为世贸组织成员,有问题可以在世贸组织框架下解决。但美却抛开世贸组织争端解决机制,依据其国内法对华发起一系列单边调查,不断对华加征关税,现将2000亿美元中国输美商品加征关税税率提高至25%,并宣布启动对剩余约3000亿美元中国输美商品加征关税的程序,严重违反了世贸组织最惠国待遇、关税约束等最基本的规则,扰乱全球产业链、供应链,这不仅损害中国和世贸组织其他成员利益,更损害了世贸组织及其争端解决机制的权威性,使多边贸易体制和国际贸易秩序面临险境。受美单边主义、贸易霸凌行径的影响,近日世界银行再次下调全球经济增长预期,并警告全球经济面临重大下行风险。我们看到,美不仅对中国加征关税,也对墨西哥、印度等发展中国家“下手”,那么谁将会是美贸易霸凌的下一个对象?在世界经济艰难复苏的背景下,很多中小国家的发展本就较为困难,把全球经济秩序搞乱了,谁是最大的受害者?中美经贸摩擦表面上是贸易问题,实质上是多边主义和单边主义的较量,是自由贸易和保护主义的较量,是规则和强权的较量,与每一个认同、维护多边贸易体制的国家都息息相关。

First, US trade bullying harms the world. It is only natural for China and the US, the two largest trading nations in the world, to experience some differences over trade and economic cooperation. As members of the World Trade Organization (WTO), China and the US should preferably address their disputes under the WTO framework. However, the US has shown no regard for the WTO’s dispute settlement mechanism (DSM), turning to its domestic law to launch a series of unilateral investigations and constantly impose additional tariffs on China. The US raised the additional tariffs on US$200 billion of Chinese exports to the US to 25%, and announced that it had launched procedures to slap additional tariffs on remaining Chinese goods, which are worth around US$300 billion. These became a serious breach of the most fundamental WTO rules, including most-favored-nation treatment and tariff binding, and disrupted global industrial chains and supply chains, which have not only harmed the interests of China and other WTO members, but also undermined the authority of the WTO and its dispute settlement system, exposing the multilateral trading system and international trade order to peril. Affected by unilateralism and trade bullying of the US, Global Economic Prospects released by the World Bank revised down again its forecast for global economic growth, and the global economy is facing significant downward risks. Besides China, we can see that the US also “took off its gloves” to developing countries like Mexico and India. So who will be the next victim? Given the situation of the world economy’s hard recovery, the development of many small and medium-sized countries is relatively difficult. Who will be the biggest victim if the global economic order has been messed up? Seeming like a trade issue, the China-US economic and trade frictions are essentially a contest between multilateralism and unilateralism, between free trade and protectionism, between rules and power. It is closely bound up with every country that agrees and defends the multilateral trading system.

二、中国坚持通过对话谈判解决分歧。中国坚决反对美贸易霸凌行径,从维护两国共同利益和多边贸易体制大局出发,坚持通过对话协商解决分歧。经过多轮磋商,今年双方本已就贸易磋商大部分内容达成共识,但遗憾的是,美出尔反尔,坚持不取消经贸摩擦以来对华加征的关税,强迫中国购买超出需求的产品,坚持在双方协议中加入涉及中国主权的要求,这是中国绝不能接受的。于是,美抛出中国“立场倒退”的无稽之谈,为挥舞关税“大棒”找寻借口,再次对华加征关税,严重损害了中国利益。合作是有原则的,对话是有底线的,在重大原则问题上中国决不让步。中国人民与很多周边国家的人民一样,曾长期遭受西方国家的侵略与压迫,对外国干涉我主权、干涉我经济独立的行径深恶痛绝,绝不容忍。因此,中国不得不采取有力应对措施,坚决捍卫国家主权和人民利益。中国希望对话,但对话的基础是平等、互利与诚信,如果认为可以通过“极限施压”迫使中国接受任何不合理要求,那是注定要失败的。

Second, China is committed to resolving disputes through dialogue and consultation. China stands firm in opposition to the US trade bullying. For the overall situation of the common interests of the two countries and global trade order, China remains committed to resolving issues through dialogue and consultation. Following numerous rounds of consultations, the two countries had agreed on most of the issues, but unfortunately, the US backtracked on its commitments by maintaining the additional tariffs imposed on China since the frictions began, forcing China to buy its products that exceed demand, insisting on including mandatory requirements concerning China’s sovereign affairs in the deal, which were absolutely unacceptable. On the contrary, the US threw out the nonsense of China’s “backtracking”, looked for excuses for abusing taxation and once again imposed additional tariffs on China, which severely hurt China’s interests. Cooperation has to be based on principles. There are bottom lines in negotiation. China will never compromise on major issues of principle concerning China’s core interests. Like people of many neighboring countries, the Chinese people have suffered the aggression and oppression of Western powers for a long period of time. History shows that, all the foreign interference in China’s sovereignty and economic independence must not be tolerated. Therefore, China has to take resolute measures to defend national sovereignty and the interests of its people. China wants dialogue, but it should be based on equality, mutual benefit and integrity. Any attempt to use “extreme pressure” to force China to accept any unreasonable demand is doomed to fail.

三、开放合作是时代潮流,多边主义是人间正道。与美利用贸易优势地位,动辄威胁加征关税,对他国施以霸凌形成鲜明对比的是,中国始终坚持在平等基础上对外开放、合作共赢,愿与世界各国分享中国发展机遇。在不久前举行的第二届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛上,中国再次宣布进一步扩大开放的五大举措,充分表明中国未来发展将会给世界带来更多机遇。东帝汶前总统、前总理、海洋边界事务首席谈判代表夏纳纳率团出席了会议。夏在“设施联通”分论坛演讲中指出,中国的“一带一路”倡议为包括东帝汶在内的广大发展中国家发展经济、改善民生提供了出路,带来了机遇,这道出了很多发展中国家的心声。中国将会同东帝汶一道,坚决捍卫多边主义,与各国实现共同发展,共同构建人类命运共同体。在全球治理中,我们应捍卫多边主义,维护以规则为基础的国际秩序、以联合国为核心的多边体系;在国际贸易中,我们应维护以世贸组织为核心、以规则为基础的多边贸易体制;在关系全人类命运的气候变化问题上,我们应维护《巴黎气候变化协定》,“退出主义”、单边主义的行为不得人心。

Third, openness and cooperation are a momentous trend of our times, and multilateralism is the right way to go. In contrast to the US’s threats of additional tariffs and pressure against other countries through its dominant position on trade, China has always been adhering to opening up and win-win cooperation on an equal footing, willing to share development opportunities with the rest of the world. On the 2nd Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, China has announced five more major opening-up measures, which has fully demonstrated that China’s future development would bring more opportunities to the world. H.E. Mr. Xanana Gusmao, former President, former Prime Minister and Chief Representative of Maritime and Land Boundary Negotiation of Timor-Leste, led Timorese delegation to the Forum. Just as pointed out by Mr. Xanana in his speech on the thematic forum of “Infrastructure Connectivity”, the “Belt and Road” Initiative has provided developing countries, including Timor-Leste, with ways and opportunities to develop economy and improve people’s livelihood. This view is shared by many developing countries. Together with Timor-Leste, China will resolutely defend multilateralism, achieve common development with all countries and jointly create a community of shared future for mankind. On global governance, we should defend multilateralism, uphold the rules-based international order and the international system with the UN as its core. On international trade, we should safeguard the rules-based multilateral trading system with the WTO as its core. On issue of climate change that affects the destiny of all mankind, we should defend the Paris Agreement on climate change, the acts of “exitism” and unilateralism are deeply unpopular.

在全球经济艰难复苏,各国经济高度依存的大背景下,“贸易战”彼此没有赢家,还会殃及世界上许多中小国家,拖累世界经济发展。实际上,正如中国国家主席习近平所说,中美难割裂,中国不愿意,相信特朗普也不愿意。通过对话协商解决贸易摩擦才是正确选择,在相互尊重、平等相待、诚信守诺的基础上,中美间达成一个互利双赢的协议不仅符合中美两国的利益,也符合国际社会利益,是国际社会的普遍期待。

In the context of the slow and hard recovery of the global economy, in the age of high level economic interdependence between countries, the “trade war” between big players has no winners. It will also harm the interests of many small and medium-sized countries and drag down the world economy. In fact, as Chinese President Xi Jinping has said, China and the US cannot be cut apart, this is neither China’s expectation nor Mr. Trump’s. It is the right option to resolve trade frictions through dialogue and consultation. On the basis of mutual respect, equality and integrity, striking a mutually beneficial and win-win agreement not only serves the interests of China, of the US, but also the interests of the international community, it will meet the common expectations of the world.

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